UPRT Training Syllabus

DAY 1 – CLASSROOM TRAINING

Course Goals – The goal of this training is to increase the ability of pilots to recognize and avoid situations that can lead to airplane upsets and to improve their ability to recover control of an airplane that has exceeded the normal flight regime. This will be accomplished by increasing awareness of potential upset situations and knowledge of aerodynamics and by application of this knowledge during training flights.

Objectives – The objectives of the course are to provide pilots with:

a. Knowledge to recognize situations that may lead to airplane upsets so that they may be prevented.
b. Basic airplane aerodynamic information.
c. Airplane flight maneuvering information and techniques for recovering airplanes that have been                                       upset.

 Definition of Airplane Upset – An airplane upset is defined as an airplane in-flight unintentionally exceeding the parameters normally experienced in line operations or training. While specific values may vary among airplane models, the following unintentional conditions generally describe an airplane upset.

1. Pitch attitude greater than 25 deg nose up or greater than 10 deg nose down
2. Bank angle greater than 45 deg.
3. Within the above parameters, but flying at air speeds inappropriate for the conditions.

It should be emphasized that recovery to a stabilized flight path should be initiated as soon as a developing upset condition is recognized.  The amount and rate of control input to counter a developing upset must be proportional to the upset experienced.  This preventive action may alleviate what might have become a more serious event.

The Situation – Data available suggest that loss of control is a problem that deserves attention. A recent study noted that 16 LOCI commercial jet accidents from 2004 to 2013 resulted in 1,576 fatalities, which is nearly twice the number in the next highest category. The NTSB targets the issue on its 2015 “Most Wanted” list of safety improvements, citing its linkage in over forty percent of fixed-wing general aviation accidents from 2001 to 2011. Business aviation LOCI accidents are a subset of those across the broader GA spectrum, and the alarming consistency of catastrophic outcomes in this type of accident compels an effort to better understand and control LOCI risks. The lethality of LOCI coupled with an overriding sense that its occurrence can be reduced through improved prevention, recognition and recovery skills make this a targeted issue for safety improvement by the NBAA Safety Committee.  Read more

The following topics will be discussed thoroughly.

 Review of actual upsets

        a.  Video reviews and discussions of upset incidents & accidents

Causes of Airplane Upsets

        a.   Environmentally Induced Airplane Upsets

        b.   Systems-Anomalies-Induced Airplane Upsets

        c.   Pilot-Induced Airplane Upsets

        d.   Combination of Causes

 Swept-Wing Airplane Fundamentals for Pilots

        a.   Stall Characteristics

        b.   Energy States

        c.   Load Factor

        d.   Aerodynamic Flight Envelope

        e.   Aerodynamics Review

        f.   Flight at Extremely Low Air speeds

        g.   High-Altitude Characteristics

– L/D Max
– Thrust Limited Condition and Recovery
– High Altitude Stalls
– Icing
– Automation during High Altitude Flight
– Human Factors and High Altitude Upsets
– Defensive, Aggressive Maneuvers

 Issues Associated with Upset Recovery

– Negative G’s
– Startle Factor
– Use of Full Control Inputs
– Counter-Intuitive Factors
– Previous Training in Non-similar Airplanes
– Potential Effects on Engines
– Post Upset Conditions


DAY 1 – FLIGHT 1 – L-39    

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION                    1.0 hour

DEPARTURE – Student makes take off and proceeds to the practice area.

PRACTICE AREA – 5,000 Hard Deck

  • Steep Turns
  • Stalls – Recovery focused on Angle Of Attack
  • Wing Overs
  • Zero-G Pushover
  • Rolls
    • Ballistic Roll
    • Barrel Roll
    • Roll Reversal
  • Roll from high pitch to inverted – Reverse Roll to recover
  • Roll from level flight to inverted – Unload – Reverse Roll to recover
  • Basic Aerobatics

RETURN TO BASE

POSTFLIGHT

  • Performed by Crew Chief

POSTFLIGHT BRIEFING

  • Video review of each maneuver with student. Discuss areas of strength and areas for improvement.

DAY 2 – FLIGHT 2 – L-39 

FLIGHT INSTRUCTION                    1.0 hour

DEPARTURE – Student makes take off and proceeds to the practice area.

PRACTICE AREA – 5,000 Hard Deck

  • Steep Turns
  • Stalls – High and Low Altitude Recoveries
  • Wing Overs – Increased Pitch & Bank Angles
  • Negative-G Pushovers
  • Rolls
    • Ballistic Roll – Higher Pitch Entry
    • Barrel Roll – Slower Roll Rates
    • Roll Reversal – Negative G Push
  • Roll from higher pitch attitude to inverted – Reverse Roll to recover
  • Roll from level flight to inverted – negative 1.5 G push – Reverse Roll to recover
  • Advanced Aerobatics

RETURN TO BASE

POSTFLIGHT

  • Performed by Crew Chief

POSTFLIGHT BRIEFING

  • Video review of each maneuver with student. Discuss areas of strength and areas for improvement. 

DAY 2 – Flight 3 – SABRELINER 

DEPARTURE – Student makes take-off from left seat and climbs toward practice area.

PRACTICE AREA – 10,000 Hard Deck

  • Steep Turns
  • Stalls – Recovery focused on AOA
    • With Flaps in landing config.
    • Simulated high altitude clean
    • Clean with idle power
  • Wing Overs
  • Near 0-G Pushover
  • Rolls
    • Ballistic Roll
    • Barrel Roll
  • Roll from high pitch to inverted –  A) Reverse Roll to recover B) Continue roll
  • Roll from level flight to inverted –  A) Reverse Roll to recover B) Continue roll
  • Reverse 1/2 Cuban demo

RETURN TO BASE

POST FLIGHT

  • Performed by Crew Chief

POSTFLIGHT LESSON REVIEW

  • Video review of each maneuver with student. Discuss strengths and areas for improvement.